Successful adoption of electric vehicles requires adequate and widespread public charging infrastructure to address customer confidence. Technological advancements in smart parking infrastructures and vehicle-to-grid energy transfer have the capability to add value to the vehicle, grid, and electricity markets. As a deferrable load and flexible source, an aggregate electric vehicle fleet can enhance system resilience. In this paper, a long-term airport parking is used as a platform on which transactive business models for electric vehicles have been developed. Different cost components were tested and compared under profit maximization with due consideration with battery degradation costs. Technical details coupled with business propositions have been developed in this paper using a mixed integer optimization implementation. A day-ahead energy transaction portfolio was created considering customer convenience. Results indicate that long-term smart parking can be profitable to all entities while providing significant benefits to the grid.
A Transactive Operating Model for Smart Airport Parking Lots
Posted: 24 Dec 2018
Authors:Maigha and M. L. Crow
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Market and Policy Considerations in Facilitating Innovation and Enabling a Flexible and Resilient Grid